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The T-Scale

In the UK and Europe the following scale, the T-Scale, was devised by the Head of the Tornado and Storm Reaserch Organisation, Dr. G. Terence Meaden to measure the intensity of tornadoes. It is more detailed and has more intensitiy levels than Fujitas F-Scale, whci is more widely used in the USA. For further information see the TORRO Tornado Intensity Scale at the TORRO website.

Description Of Tornado
& Windspeeds
Description Of Damage
(for guidance only)
T0 Light Tornado
17 - 24 m s-1 (39 - 54 mi h-1)
Loose light litter raised from ground-level in spirals. Tents, marquees seriously disturbed; most exposed tiles, slates on roofs dislodged. Twigs snapped; trail visible through crops.
T1 Mild Tornado
25 - 32 m s-1 (55 - 72 mi h-1)
Deckchairs, small plants, heavy litter becomes airborne; minor damage to sheds. More serious dislodging of tiles, slates, chimney pots. Wooden fences flattened. Slight damage to hedges and trees.
T2 Moderate Tornado
33 - 41 m s-1 (73 - 92 mi h-1)
Heavy mobile homes displaced, light caravans blown over, garden sheds destroyed, garage roofs torn away, much damage to tiled roofs and chimney stacks. General damage to trees, some big branches twisted or snapped off, small trees uprooted.
T3 Strong Tornado
42 - 51 m s-1 (93 - 114 mi h-1)
Mobile homes overturned / badly damaged; light caravans destroyed; garages and weak outbuildings destroyed; house roof timbers considerably exposed. Some of the bigger trees snapped or uprooted.
T4 Severe Tornado
52 - 61 m s-1 (115 - 136 mi h-1)
Motor cars levitated. Mobile homes airborne / destroyed; sheds airborne for considerable distances; entire roofs removed from some houses; roof timbers of stronger brick or stone houses completely exposed; gable ends torn away. Numerous trees uprooted or snapped.
T5 Intense Tornado
62 - 72 m s-1 (137 - 160 mi h-1)
Heavy motor vehicles levitated; more serious building damage that for T4, yet house walls usually remaining; the oldest, weakest buildings may collapse completely.
T6 Moderately-Devastating Tornado
73 - 83 m s-1 (161 - 186 mi h-1)
Strongly-built houses lose entire roofs and perhaps also a wall; more of the less-strong buildings collapse.
T7 Strongly-Devastating Tornado
84 - 95 m s-1 (187 - 212 mi h-1)
Wooden-frame houses wholly demolished; some walls of stone or brick houses beaten down or collapse; steel-framed warehouse-type constructions may buckle slightly. Locomotives thrown over. Noticeable de-barking of trees by flying debris.
T8 Severely-Devastating Tornado
96 - 107 m s-1 (213 - 240 mi h-1)
Motor cars hurled great distances. Wooden-framed houses and their contents dispersed over long distances; stone or brick houses irreparably damaged; steel-framed buildings buckled.
T9 Intensely-Devastating Tornado
108 - 120 m s-1 (241 - 269 mi h-1)
Many steel-framed buildings badly damaged; locomotives or trains hurled some distances. Complete debarking of any standing tree-trunks.
T10 Super Tornado
121 - 134 m s-1 (270 - 299 mi h-1) +
Entire frame houses and similar buildings lifted bodily from foundations and carried some distances. Steel-reinforced concrete buildings may be severely damaged.


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